HomeCropPaddy: Planting And Package Of Practices

Paddy: Planting And Package Of Practices

More than half of the world’s population consume rice as their staple food.  Despite being grown in a variety of agro climatic areas, rice is the most commonly used food in SouthEast Asia. In India, rice planting is typically farmed in six distinct habitats, including coastal lowlands, deep water areas, rainfed lowlands, rainfed uplands, irrigated kharif and irrigated rabi. Gain a thorough understanding of how to grow paddy crops to boost your farm productivity. 

Rice Crop at a Glance 

Botanical Name: Oryza sativa 

Common Name: Rice (English), Dhaan (Hindi), Nel (Tamil), Nellu (Malayalam), Vari (Telugu). 

Crop Season: All seasons [Kharif, Rabi and Summer] 

Soil Requirements 

Paddy planting can be done in a range of soil types, from sandy loams to clay soils. The best soil for the cultivation of rice crops is clay loams. Although rice crops can withstand a wide range of soil reactions, it may prefer acidic soils with a pH between 5.5 and 6.5. 

Climatic Requirements 

For successful rice planting, maintaining the ideal temperature is crucial. Rice is best suited for areas with warm and humid climates. Paddy crop performs better at temperature range of 21˚C to 38˚C and it can tolerate upto 40 ̊C. It is a short day plant and if long days appear at the reproductive phase it delays flowering. 

Package of Practices for Rice 

Seedbed Preparation of nursery 

  1. Dry seed bed 
  • Select suitable land near the water source in the middle of June and December for kharif and rabi crops, respectively. 
  • Plough the soil 3-4 times and use a rotavator after two ploughings for fine tilth and level properly. 
  • For 1000m2 nursery area in rice planting, apply fertilizer at the rate of 10 kg N, 2kg P2O5 and 2kg K2O. 
  • About one tenth of the main field is required as nursery 

2. Wet Seed Bed 

  • Ploughing should be done 4 to 5 times till the desired tilth is obtained 
  • Divide the plot into sub-plots of 1m*10m size by making drainage channels on all the four sides 
  • Apply 5kg urea, 10kg SSP and 5kg MOP before levelling per bed of 10m2 area 

3. Dapog Nursery 

  • Dapog method of raising nursery consists of growing seedlings on raised soil bed covered with polyethelene sheets. 
  • To establish a healthy paddy planting, sow pre-germinated seeds on top of the nursery cover, with a recommended rate of one kg per sq. meter. 
  • Nursery area of 25 to 35 sq.m. of area is enough to raise seedlings for 1 hectare 
  • Seedlings raised by this method get ready for transplanting within 13 to 14 days 
  • In case of zinc deficiency, 0.5% solution of zinc sulphate heptahydrate should be sprayed. 

Selection of Seed 

  • Prepare a salt solution (60 gm in 1 litre water) and place the seed in the container of salt solution 
  • The seeds that float upon soaking should be removed  
  • Dry the soaked seed under shade 

Seed rate 

S.No.  Sowing method  Seed rate (kg/ha) 
1  Transplanting  30 to 35 
2  Direct seeding  75 
3  System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  7 to 8 

Seed Treatment  

Treat paddy seeds using Bavistin (Carbendazim 50% WP) at the rate of 2 gm/kg seed for 24 hours to control seed borne diseases. In the wet seed bed condition this can be done at the time the seed is soaked for sprouting (or) soak the 10 kg seed in 20 litres water containing Taqat (Hexaconazole 5% + Captan 70% WP) at the rate of 2 gm/litre water to prevent from rice blast. 

Nursery Management 

  • After 24 hrs of seed soaking drain the water, and cover the seed in gunny bag for germination 
  • Sow the sprouted seeds in nursery bed and keep the beds moist for first few days 
  • Maintain a shallow layer of water after seedlings are about 1 inch height 

Main Field Preparation 

  • Prepare the land well by using a tractor drawn plough in dry condition. It can be done during pre-monsoon rain or immediately after the harvest of the second crop. This will reduce pest and weed incidence. 
  • Puddle the field twice at a 7 days interval and level the land after each puddling. Puddling is a process of churning the soil in standing water. This results in the formation of impervious layer which reduces deep percolation losses. 
  • System of rice intensification is the process of rice cultivation by adopting a square geometry. In this method of paddy cultivation young seedling of 8 to 12 days old (2 leaf stage) should be raised in moist soil (saturated)  

Age of seedlings for transplanting 

  • Kharif/ wet season: 20 to 25 days old seedlings 
  • Rabi/ Dry season/ Dalua: Maximum of 30 days old seedlings 

Spacing and Stand establishment 

  • Kharif/ wet season: 20 cm×10 cm 
  • Rabi/ Dry season/ Dalua: 15 cm×10 cm 
  • SRI: 25 cm × 25 cm  

Fertilizer Dose 

  • Wet season: 80:40:40 N, P2O5 and K2O kg/ha + 10t/ha FYM  
  • Dry season: 120:60:60 N,P2O5 and K2O kg/ha + 10t/ha FYM 
  • For paddy planting in zinc-deficient areas, apply zinc sulphate at a rate of 25 kg/ha as a basal application. 

Irrigation water management 

  • Keep the rice farm under saturated condition for a week after transplanting for establishment and growth of roots 
  • Maintain water level of 3 to 5 cm during the entire paddy crop growth period, after that field should be drained prior to top dressing and irrigate after 24 hours. 
  • In paddy cultivation, the most critical stages of water requirement are panicle initiation, flowering and grain filling stages. 
  • In general, rice crops require 1200 mm depth of water during the crop growing season. 
  • Irrigation should be stopped in rice cultivation during the last 10 to 15 days before harvesting. 

Weed Management 

During the initial 4 to 6 weeks of paddy planting, weed competition poses the greatest challenge for rice growth. Apply Craze (Pretilachlor 50% EC) at 500 ml/acre or NACL-Eraze Strong (Bensulfuron Methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% GR) at the rate of 4 kg/acre as pre emergence to control weed emergence within 2 to 3 days of transplanting. At 20 and 40 DAS/DAT, post emergence application of Nominee Gold (Bispyribac Sodium 10% SC) at the rate of 80 ml/acre is effective. The effectiveness of this application can further be improved by additional application of Almix (Metsulfuron methyl 10% + Chlorimuron ethyl 10% WP) at 8 gm/acre at 20 and 40 DAT. 

Crop Protection (Pests and Diseases) 

Pests infesting Paddy crop

Pest  Symptoms  Management 
Yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) 
  • Dead-heart at vegetative stage which turns brownish, curls and dries off 
  • White ears appear during panicle emergence stage resulting in partially filled grains 
  • Apply Zygant (Flubendiamide 0.7% GR) at the rate of 5 kg/acre to the paddy farm 
  • Apply Ferterra (Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% GR) at the rate of 4 kg/acre to the rice farm 
Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae)  
  • Gall is a modified leaf sheath. If the crop gets infested during early stages initiates heavy tillering 
  • Formation of hollow whitish to pale green cylindrical tube in tillers known as gall / silver shoot/onion shoot 
  • Apply Ekalux (Quinolphos 25% EC) at the rate of 2 ml/lit water. 
  • Apply Curacron (Profenofos 50% EC) at the rate of 100 ml/acre  
Brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) 
  • The most characteristic symptom of BPH infestation in rice planting is drying of crops in circular fashion. 
  • Honey dew symptom appear on the leaves 
  • Apply Flotis (Buprofezin 25% SC) at the rate of 2 ml/lit water 
  • Apply Prorin (Profenophos 40%+Cypermethrin 4%EC) at the rate of 400ml/acre 
Rice Hispa (Dicladispa armigera) 
  • Papery white rectangular streaks are the characteristic symptoms of infestation 
  • The tips of the infested leaf turns white 
  • Apply Lara 909 (Chloropyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC) at the rate of 1.5 ml/lit water 
  • Apply Curacron (Profenofos 50% EC) at the rate of 100 ml/acre  
Rice leaf folder   (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) 
  • The larva folds the leaf into a folder and knits it 
  • It stays within the leaf and feeds on it 
  • Faecal pellets are observed when the leaf is opened 
  • Apply Lara 909 (Chloropyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC) at the rate of 1.5 ml/lit water 
  • Apply Curacron (Profenofos 50% EC) at the rate of 100 ml/acre  
Rice earhead bug (Leptocorisa acuta) 
  • During milky stage both nymphs and adults suck juice from grains 
  • The feeding site on the grain is marked as a brown spot 
  • Affected grains were partially filled or chaffy 
  • Apply Ampligo (Chlorantraniliprole 10% + Lambda Cyhalothrin 5% ZC) at the rate of 100 ml/acre  
  • Apply Coragen   (Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC) at the rate of 60 ml/acre  

Common Diseases affecting Paddy crop

Disease  Symptoms  Manageement 
Rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) 
  • Spindle shaped brown spots with a grayish center on the leaf sheath is a characteristic symptom of rice blast 
  • These spots join together, and the field shows up a burnt appearance 
  • At times, rice planting may also experience blast, which occurs on nodes and peduncles, commonly referred to as node blast and neck blast, respectively. 
  • Apply Mantis 75 WP (Tricyclazole 75% WP) at the rate of 200 ml/acre 
  • Apply Custodia (Azoxystrobin 11% + Tebuconazole 18.3% w/w SC) at the rate of 300 ml/acre 
Brown Leaf Spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) 
  • Oval to circular brown spots appear on the leaf 
  • Later, these spots coalesce with one another and the leaf dries up 
  • Apply Amistar top (Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenoconazole 11.4% SC) at the rate of 200 ml/acre 
  • Apply Contaf (Hexaconazole 5 % EC) at the rate of 200 ml/acre 
Rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) 
  • Initially,  grey spots appear on the leaf sheath 
  • These spots enlarge and gives a blackish brown appearance 
  • Infected plants results in poor grain filling 
  • Apply Filia (Propiconazole – 10.7% + Tricyclazole – 34.2% SE) at the rate of 200 ml/acre 
  • Apply Zerox (Propiconazole 25% EC) at the rate of 200 ml/acre 
False Smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) 
  • The spikelets are usually covered by greenish spore balls with velvety appearance. 
  • The grain with a sporeball remain unfilled  
  • Apply Filia (Propiconazole – 10.7% + Tricyclazole – 34.2% SE at the rate of 200 ml/acre 
  • Apply Amistar top (Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenoconazole 11.4% SC) at the rate of 200 ml/acre 
Bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) 
  • At early stage small water soaked lesions appear on the leaves 
  • Further, they enlarge and turn the straw yellow with a wavy margin 
  • Apply Hal (Streptocycline Sulphate 90 % w/w, Tetracycline Hydrochloride  10 % w/w at the rate of 6 gm/50 litres water 
Bacterial leaf streak (Xanthomonas campestris p.v. oryzicola) 
  • At an early stage of rice planting, small water-soaked streaks may appear on the leaves 
  • Further, they enlarge length wise and turn brown in colour 
  • Apply Hal (Streptocycline Sulphate 90% w/w, Tetracycline Hydrochloride  10 % w/w) at the rate of 6 gm/50 litres water 

Harvesting and Threshing 

The most common sign of crop maturity is a change in straw colour from green to yellow. At this point, the panicle’s grain begins to mature from top to bottom. In general, the lower portion of the plant should still be green while harvesting to prevent shattering. If harvesting is performed by a combined harvestor, threshing occurs simultaneously. However, if harvested manually, then the rice should be bundled and threshed using a thresher. 

Yield 

The yield of the paddy crop ranges from 4 to 5 t/ha depending on variety, soil and management conditions 

Varieties/Hybrids of Paddy 

  • Varieties: RNR 15048, Naveen, Pusa Basmati 1, Basmati 370, Lunishree, MTU 1010, Pusa 44 
  • Hybrids: PRH 10, DRRH 1, APHR 1, APHR 2, Pant Sankar, Mahyco 504, JK 6004 
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