HomeCropGrapes: Planting And Package Of Practices

Grapes: Planting And Package Of Practices

Are you interested in the cultivation of grapes and want to learn how to grow a successful grapes crop? You’re in the right place! Read further to understand the necessary steps involved in grapes planting and overall cultivation of this crop to achieve a successful harvest.

Grapes cultivation hold significant global importance as a crop, primarily cultivated for wine production, the making of raisins and consumed as fresh table fruit. In India, grape farming focuses mainly on table grape production. Despite being a temperate crop, grapes have successfully adapted to India’s subtropical and tropical climates. The fruit is rich in minerals like potassium (0.15-0.25%) and calcium (0.004-0.025%), as well as B-complex vitamins (391-636 mg/100g). Grape juice acts as a mild laxative, stimulates the kidneys and serves as a refreshing thirst quencher. 

Grapes Crop at a Glance 

Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera 

Common Name: Angoor (Hindi), Draksha (Gujarati), Dratchai pazham (Tamil), Draakshm (Marathi), Draksha (Telugu), Mundhiringa (Malayalam) 

Crop type: Fruit crop 

Soil Requirements 

Grapes planting can be done in a variety of soil types, but it grows well particularly in well-drained loam to sandy loam soils with a depth of approximately 1 meter. Grapes cultivation can be done in the soil having pH level ranging from 6.5 to 8.5.  

Climatic Requirements 

The grapes crop flourishes in hot and arid environmental conditions throughout its growth and fruiting stages. Optimal grape growth occurs at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40˚ C and an annual rainfall of approximately 900 mm is considered suitable for its development. 

Package of Practices for Grapes 

Soil preparation for Grapes cultivation 

To prepare the field for grapes cultivation, it is necessary to plough the soil thoroughly and achieve a level surface using tools such as disk harrows or field cultivators. This process should be repeated two or three times, depending on the soil type. It is important to ensure that no crop remnants or stubble are left in the field. Generally, grapes planting is done in pits. 

When to grow Grapes crop 

  • Rabi Season: November or December to January 
  • Summer season: February to March 


In general, Grapes seeds should be sown in lines as follows 

Species  Seed Rate (Plants/ha)  Spacing (m) 
Table Grapes  2000 to 2500  3 m × 1 m 
Raisin Grapes  4000 to 4500  1.8 m × 1.5 m 
Wine Grapes  3000 to 3500  0.9 m × 1.8 m 

Grapes Planting 

Between mid-January and the first two weeks of February, grapevine root cuttings are relocated to the field prior to their sprouting. Planting of grapes vines can be done at a distance of 3 meters by 3 meters, with 1-meter deep and wide holes. In cases where the soil is lighter, the size of the trenches can be reduced. The trenches should be filled with a mixture of 50 to 60 kg of well-decomposed farmyard manure and half of the topsoil. Before planting the vines, it is advisable to water the refilled pits for several days. 

Irrigation Schedule for Grapes farm 

Grapes are a perennial crop that requires regular irrigation. in the flood method of irrigation, watering is carried out at intervals of 5-7 days during summer, 8-10 days during winter and 15-20 days during the rainy season. On the other hand, in drip irrigation, approximately 40-50 liters of water are applied per vine per day. This translates to around 30-40 liters or 20-30 liters of water per day per vine, depending on the specific requirements.  

Manures and Fertilizers 

To avoid unnecessary fertilizer utilization and boost profitability of grapes farm, the fertilizer should be administered based on the results of a soil test. Application of urea, SSP and MOP at rates 400:1500:250 kg/ha is recommended for grapes farm.  

Inter-cultivation Practices 

In grapes cultivation, regular weeding is necessary to maintain a weed-free field. For effective weed control, Oxykill (Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC) can be applied pre-emergence at a rate of 450 ml per hectare, while post-emergence application of Kabuto (Paraquat dichloride 24% SL) at the rate of 500 ml per acre is another effective option to manage weed growth. 


Grapevines are trained on a suitable trellis system, such as a ‘T’, ‘Y’, ‘H’, or bower shape. Initially, the vines are trained as single stems up to the height of the trellis. Any side branches along the trunk of the vine are pruned off and the growing tip is cut 15 cm below the level of the trellis. Two lateral branches are selected at the top of the vine and allowed to grow in opposite directions. These lateral branches become the main arms of the vine. From each main arm, three pairs of secondary arms are created and trained to grow in opposite directions along the wires of the trellis. It is important not to extend the primary and secondary arms too quickly. The vine’s framework should be covered gradually over the available space, as excessive growth of non-productive wood can hinder the development of fruitful canes.  


Pruning done (Month)  Purpose 
April  New vegetative growth 
October  Stimulate crop growth 


In January, obtain cuttings from vines that have yielded a healthy harvest and are free from insect, disease and pest damage. Select cuttings from the center of one-year-old canes. These cuttings should measure 30-40 cm in length, have a diameter similar to that of a pencil and possess at least 3-4 buds. The bottom cut should be straight and made below the node, while the top cut should be slanted and positioned 2-3 cm above the node. In February, planting of grapes cuttings can be done in a nursery on well-prepared, level beds. Place one-third of the cutting above the soil surface and bury the remaining two-thirds in the soil. 

Crop Protection (Pests and Diseases) 

Pests infesting Grapes farm

Insect  Scientific Name  Symptoms  Management 
Flea Beetle  Scelodonta strigicollis, 
  • Young buds and leaves are eaten by adults 
  • Shoot growth is restricted 
  • Apply Matador (Lambda cyhalothrin 5 CS) at 1 ml/lit water 
  •  Apply HI – IMIDA(Imidacloprid 17.8 SL) at 0.6 ml/lit water 
Mealy bugs  Maconellicoccus hirsutus 
  • Nymph and adult suck plant sap 
  • Curling and malformation of shoot 
  • Apply Banzo (Buprofezin 25 % SC) at 1.25ml/L of water 
  • Apply Dash (Methomyl 40%  SP) at 1 gm/lit water 
Thrips  Scirtothrips dorsalis 
  • Curling and cupping of young leaves 
  • Necrotic spots on berries 
  • Browning net like appearance on surface of berries 
  • Apply TATA – TAFGOR (Dimethoate 30% EC ) at 1.00 ml/lit water 
  •  Apply Confidor (Imidacloprid 200 SL) at 0.75 – 1 ml/lit water 
Leaf Eating Caterpillar  Spodoptera litura 
  • White papery like appearance 
  • Skeletonization of leaves 
  • Apply Azozfene (Phosalone 35% EC) at 2 ml/lit water 
  • Apply Acinate (Methomyl 225) at 2 ml/lit water 
Grapevine stem borers  Celosterna scabrator 
  • Feed on live plants 
  • Inter-veinal chlorosis 
  • Apply Javan (Dichlorvos 76% EC) at 2 ml/hole 
Mites  Tetranychus spp. 
  • Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves 
  • Discoloration of leaves 
  • Defoliation 
  • Apply Hilfol (Dicofol 18.5 EC) at 2.50 ml/lit water 
  •  Apply Neon (Fenpyroximate 5% SC) at 1 ml/lit water 

Diseases affecting Grapes farm 

Disease  Scientific Name  Symptoms  Management 
Powdery Mildew  Uncinula necator 
  • Shrivel and drop off leaves 
  • Greyish center and black edge 
  • Blue Eye is observed 
  • Apply Batista (Carbendazim 46.27% SC) at 1 gm/lit water 
  •  Apply Azoxy (Azoxystrobin 23% SC) at 1 ml/lit water 
Bacterial Leaf Spot  Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola 
  • Water soaked spots seen at lower surface of leaves 
  • Young growing shoots are affected 
  • Upon berries brownish  lesions formed. 
  • Apply Conika (Kasugamycin 5% + copper oxychloride 45% WP) at 1.5 gm/lit water 
Leaf Blight and Bunch Necrosis  Alternaria alternata 
  • Yellow colour spots on margins of leaf and later concentric rings 
  • Drying and Defoliation of leaves 
  •  Appear dark brown purplish patches 
  • Apply  Bordeaux mixture 1.0%  
  •  Apply Sixer (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP)  at 1 gm/lit water 
Leaf Rust  Phakopsora vitis 
  • Yellow to brown spots on upper surface of leaves 
  • Powdery spores on underside of leaves 
  • Premature leaf fall 
  • Apply Roko (Thiophanate Methyl 70% WP) at 0.5 gm/lit water 
  • Apply Baycor  (Bitertanol 25% WP) at 2 gm/lit water 


It is essential to harvest grapes only when they are fully ripe. Since grapes do not ripen simultaneously, multiple pickings are required to harvest the entire crop. The taste of the berries serves as the primary indicator of maturity. If the berries at the tip of a bunch are flavorful, it indicates that the entire cluster is ready for harvesting. Harvesting typically begins 30-70 days after the fruit set, when the berries transition from green to yellow (for white varieties) or red-purple (for red varieties). It is important to pluck the bunches close to the cane, allowing for a sufficiently long stem that facilitates handling during picking, packing, displaying and selling. The natural bloom on the berries should not be wiped off during handling. Harvesting is best done during the cooler hours of the day and after harvesting, it is crucial to protect the bunches from direct sunlight exposure. 


In subtropical regions, a properly managed vineyard starts producing grapes three years after planting, and in tropical areas, it may yield even earlier. A well-maintained grapes farm or vineyard in India can yield approximately 25-30 tonnes per hectare. 

Varieties/Hybrids of Grapes crop

Anab-e-Shahi, The Thompson Seedless, Beauty Seedless, Arkavati, Bhokri Cheema Sahebi, Delight, Himrod, Perlette, Selection 94, Pusa Seedless and Thompson Seedless 


Read More

Stay in Touch

Subscribe to receive latest updates from us.

Related Articles

Would love your thoughts, please comment.x