Are you interested in the cultivation of grapes and want to learn how to grow a successful grapes crop? You’re in the right place! Read further to understand the necessary steps involved in grapes planting and overall cultivation of this crop to achieve a successful harvest.
Grapes cultivation hold significant global importance as a crop, primarily cultivated for wine production, the making of raisins and consumed as fresh table fruit. In India, grape farming focuses mainly on table grape production. Despite being a temperate crop, grapes have successfully adapted to India’s subtropical and tropical climates. The fruit is rich in minerals like potassium (0.15-0.25%) and calcium (0.004-0.025%), as well as B-complex vitamins (391-636 mg/100g). Grape juice acts as a mild laxative, stimulates the kidneys and serves as a refreshing thirst quencher.
Grapes Crop at a Glance
Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera
Common Name: Angoor (Hindi), Draksha (Gujarati), Dratchai pazham (Tamil), Draakshm (Marathi), Draksha (Telugu), Mundhiringa (Malayalam)
Crop type: Fruit crop
Grapes planting can be done in a variety of soil types, but it grows well particularly in well-drained loam to sandy loam soils with a depth of approximately 1 meter. Grapes cultivation can be done in the soil having pH level ranging from 6.5 to 8.5.
The grapes crop flourishes in hot and arid environmental conditions throughout its growth and fruiting stages. Optimal grape growth occurs at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40˚ C and an annual rainfall of approximately 900 mm is considered suitable for its development.
Package of Practices for Grapes
Soil preparation for Grapes cultivation
To prepare the field for grapes cultivation, it is necessary to plough the soil thoroughly and achieve a level surface using tools such as disk harrows or field cultivators. This process should be repeated two or three times, depending on the soil type. It is important to ensure that no crop remnants or stubble are left in the field. Generally, grapes planting is done in pits.
When to grow Grapes crop
- Rabi Season: November or December to January
- Summer season: February to March
In general, Grapes seeds should be sown in lines as follows
|Species||Seed Rate (Plants/ha)||Spacing (m)|
|Table Grapes||2000 to 2500||3 m × 1 m|
|Raisin Grapes||4000 to 4500||1.8 m × 1.5 m|
|Wine Grapes||3000 to 3500||0.9 m × 1.8 m|
Between mid-January and the first two weeks of February, grapevine root cuttings are relocated to the field prior to their sprouting. Planting of grapes vines can be done at a distance of 3 meters by 3 meters, with 1-meter deep and wide holes. In cases where the soil is lighter, the size of the trenches can be reduced. The trenches should be filled with a mixture of 50 to 60 kg of well-decomposed farmyard manure and half of the topsoil. Before planting the vines, it is advisable to water the refilled pits for several days.
Irrigation Schedule for Grapes farm
Grapes are a perennial crop that requires regular irrigation. in the flood method of irrigation, watering is carried out at intervals of 5-7 days during summer, 8-10 days during winter and 15-20 days during the rainy season. On the other hand, in drip irrigation, approximately 40-50 liters of water are applied per vine per day. This translates to around 30-40 liters or 20-30 liters of water per day per vine, depending on the specific requirements.
Manures and Fertilizers
To avoid unnecessary fertilizer utilization and boost profitability of grapes farm, the fertilizer should be administered based on the results of a soil test. Application of urea, SSP and MOP at rates 400:1500:250 kg/ha is recommended for grapes farm.
In grapes cultivation, regular weeding is necessary to maintain a weed-free field. For effective weed control, Oxykill (Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC) can be applied pre-emergence at a rate of 450 ml per hectare, while post-emergence application of Kabuto (Paraquat dichloride 24% SL) at the rate of 500 ml per acre is another effective option to manage weed growth.
Grapevines are trained on a suitable trellis system, such as a ‘T’, ‘Y’, ‘H’, or bower shape. Initially, the vines are trained as single stems up to the height of the trellis. Any side branches along the trunk of the vine are pruned off and the growing tip is cut 15 cm below the level of the trellis. Two lateral branches are selected at the top of the vine and allowed to grow in opposite directions. These lateral branches become the main arms of the vine. From each main arm, three pairs of secondary arms are created and trained to grow in opposite directions along the wires of the trellis. It is important not to extend the primary and secondary arms too quickly. The vine’s framework should be covered gradually over the available space, as excessive growth of non-productive wood can hinder the development of fruitful canes.
|Pruning done (Month)||Purpose|
|April||New vegetative growth|
|October||Stimulate crop growth|
In January, obtain cuttings from vines that have yielded a healthy harvest and are free from insect, disease and pest damage. Select cuttings from the center of one-year-old canes. These cuttings should measure 30-40 cm in length, have a diameter similar to that of a pencil and possess at least 3-4 buds. The bottom cut should be straight and made below the node, while the top cut should be slanted and positioned 2-3 cm above the node. In February, planting of grapes cuttings can be done in a nursery on well-prepared, level beds. Place one-third of the cutting above the soil surface and bury the remaining two-thirds in the soil.
Crop Protection (Pests and Diseases)
Pests infesting Grapes farm
|Flea Beetle||Scelodonta strigicollis,||
|Mealy bugs||Maconellicoccus hirsutus||
|Leaf Eating Caterpillar||Spodoptera litura||
|Grapevine stem borers||Celosterna scabrator||
Diseases affecting Grapes farm
|Powdery Mildew||Uncinula necator||
|Bacterial Leaf Spot||Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola||
|Leaf Blight and Bunch Necrosis||Alternaria alternata||
|Leaf Rust||Phakopsora vitis||
It is essential to harvest grapes only when they are fully ripe. Since grapes do not ripen simultaneously, multiple pickings are required to harvest the entire crop. The taste of the berries serves as the primary indicator of maturity. If the berries at the tip of a bunch are flavorful, it indicates that the entire cluster is ready for harvesting. Harvesting typically begins 30-70 days after the fruit set, when the berries transition from green to yellow (for white varieties) or red-purple (for red varieties). It is important to pluck the bunches close to the cane, allowing for a sufficiently long stem that facilitates handling during picking, packing, displaying and selling. The natural bloom on the berries should not be wiped off during handling. Harvesting is best done during the cooler hours of the day and after harvesting, it is crucial to protect the bunches from direct sunlight exposure.
In subtropical regions, a properly managed vineyard starts producing grapes three years after planting, and in tropical areas, it may yield even earlier. A well-maintained grapes farm or vineyard in India can yield approximately 25-30 tonnes per hectare.
Varieties/Hybrids of Grapes crop
Anab-e-Shahi, The Thompson Seedless, Beauty Seedless, Arkavati, Bhokri Cheema Sahebi, Delight, Himrod, Perlette, Selection 94, Pusa Seedless and Thompson Seedless