HomeCrop11 Paddy Diseases: Understanding The Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment Options

11 Paddy Diseases: Understanding The Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment Options

 

Paddy diseases can have a devastating impact on rice production and farmers’ livelihoods. It is one of the most important food crops in India which covers 1/4th of the total cropped area. Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population. India stands in the second position after China in global rice production. Total rice production in the year 2022-23 is 125 million tonnes. The total area under rice cultivation in 2022-23 is 45.5 million hectares with an average productivity of about 4.1 tonnes/ha. In India, Paddy is grown mostly during the Kharif season. It grows well in tropical and sub-tropical hot and humid climates.  

It is crucial to understand the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for paddy diseases to prevent their spread and minimize their impact. In this listicle, we will explore 11 common paddy diseases and what you need to know about them.

The scientific name of paddy: Oryza sativa 

10 Major Paddy Diseases:

1. Rice Blast or Blast of Rice:

Causal agent: Pyricularia oryzae (Sexual stage: Magnaporthe grisea) 

Affecting stages: All crop stages from seedling to late tillering and ear heading stage 

It is one of the most destructive Paddy diseases. The disease affects all parts of rice plants, mainly leaves, neck and nodes. It is expected to cause grain loss by 70 – 80%.  

Symptoms Of Rice Blast:  

  • Leaf Blast Of Rice – Spindle-shaped spots with grey centre and brown margin, later causing a ‘Blasted’ or ‘Burnt’ appearance  
  • Neck Blast Of Rice – Greyish brown lesions on the neck, panicle breaks and fall off 
  • Node Blast Of Rice – Affected nodes show black lesions which later break up 

Favourable Conditions For Blast of Rice Disease: 

Areas having prolonged or frequent rainfall, lower soil moisture, cooler temperature and high relative humidity of about 93-99% are more susceptible to this disease.  

Buy Fungicide Of Rice Blast: 

Product Name  Technical content 
Contaf Fungicide  Hexaconazole 5 % EC 
Nativo Fungicide  Tebuconazole 50% + Trifloxystrobin 25% WG 
Dhanuka Kasu-B Fungicide  Kasugamacyin 3% SL 
Folicur Fungicide  Tebuconazole 250 EC 

2. Bacterial Leaf Blight Of Rice:

Causal agent: Xanthomonas oryzae 

Affecting stages: Tillering stage to Heading stage 

Symptoms For Bacterial Leaf Blight Of Rice: 

  • Water-soaked spots appear on leaves which gradually coalesce to form blotches and white streaks form from the tip of the leaf to the base. 
  • Wilting and yellowing of leaves 
  • Usually known as ‘Seedling wilt’ or ‘Kresek’ 

Favourable Conditions For Bacterial Leaf Blight Of Rice: 

Occurs mostly in irrigated and rainfed lowlands. The temperature of 25 – 34°C, Relative Humidity above 70%, high nitrogen fertilization, strong winds and continuous rainfall are favourable conditions for disease infection.   

Buy Chemical Management For Bacterial Leaf Blight Of Rice:  

Product Name  Technical content 
Blue Copper  Copper Oxychloride 50% WP 
Cristocycline  Streptomycin sulphate 90% + Tetracylin hydrochloride 10% SP 
Geolife Geomycin  Consortium of Plant Extracts 
Conika  Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 

Discover the ultimate defence against bacterial leaf disease in paddy. Click for a detailed view!

3. Sheath Rot Of Rice:

Symptom of Sheath Rot in Paddy
Symptom of Sheath Rot in Paddy

Causal agent: Sarocladium oryzae 

Affecting Stages: Boot leaf stage 

Symptoms Of Sheath Rot Of Rice: 

  • Irregular greyish-brown water-soaked lesions on flag leaf sheath 
  • White powdery fungal growth inside the affected sheath 

Favourable Conditions For Sheath Rot Of Rice: 

It is most prevalent during wet seasons compared to dry seasons. High nitrogen fertilization, plants with injuries and wounds, high relative humidity and temperature of 20 – 28°C, and closer planting density are some favourable conditions for disease incidence.  

Buy Chemical Management For Sheath Rot of Rice: 

Product Name  Technical content 
Dhanustin Fungicide  Carbendazim 50% WP 
Kavach Fungicide  Chlorothalonil 75% WP 
Tata Master Fungicide  Metalaxyl 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP 
Conika Fungicide Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 

 

Want to safeguard your paddy crops? Get an in-depth understanding of Sheath Rot disease. Click here

4. Rice Brown Spot:

Brown Spots on Paddy Leaves
Brown Spots on Paddy Leaves

Causal agent:  Helminthosporium oryzae 

Affecting Stages: Seedling to milky stage 

Symptoms Of Rice Brown Spot: 

  • Oval or cylindrical dark brown spots with a yellow halo 
  • Infection of florets can lead to incomplete grain filling and reduced grain quality 

Favourable Conditions for Rice Brown Spot: 

Relative Humidity above 86 – 100%, a temperature of 16 – 36°C, and infected seeds, weeds, and infected stubbles are some conditions favourable for disease infection.  

Buy Chemical Management for Rice Brown Spot: 

Product Name  Technical content 
Tilt Fungicide  Propiconazole 25%EC 
Contaf Plus Fungicide  Hexaconazole 5 % SC 
Merger Fungicide  Tricyclazole 18 % + Mancozeb 62 % WP 
Godiwa Super Fungicide  Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenoconazole 11.4% SC 

 

Shield your harvest from Brown Spot disease in paddy! Click here to discover vital insights for crop protection.

5. False Smut Of Rice

Causal agent: Ustilaginoidea virens 

Affecting stages: Flowering stage to maturity 

Symptoms Of False Smut Of Rice: 

  • Spikelets have orange or greenish-black velvety smut balls 
  • This leads to chaffy grains 

Favourable Conditions For False Smut Of Rice: 

A temperature of 25 – 35°C, Relative Humidity above 90%, high nitrogen fertilization, heavy rainfall and winds are favourable conditions for false smut infection.  

Buy Chemical Management for False Smut Of Rice: 

Product Name  Technical content 
Amistar top fungicide  Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenoconazole 11.4% SC 
Roko Fungicide  Thiophanate Methyl 70% WP 
Custodia Fungicide  Azoxystrobin 11% + Tebuconazole 18.3% SC 
Bcontrol fungicide  Validamycin 3% L 

 

Prevent False Smut disease from wreaking havoc on your paddy crops. Get detailed protection measures by clicking here

6. Sheath Blight Of Rice 

Irregular lesions with greyish-white centre and brown margin
Irregular lesions with greyish-white centre and brown margin

Causal agent: Rhizoctonia solani 

Affecting Stages: Tillering to heading 

Symptoms Of Sheath Blight Of Rice : 

  • Initially, greenish-grey oval or elliptical lesions appear on the leaf sheath near the water level 
  • Later, it forms irregular lesions with a greyish-white centre and brown margin 

Favourable Conditions for Sheath Blight Of Rice : 

The disease spread is more frequent during rainy seasons. High temperature, High Relative humidity, high nitrogen fertilization, and closer planting are favourable conditions for sheath blight infection. 

Buy Chemical Management for Sheath Blight Of Rice : 

Product Name  Technical content 
Folicur Fungicide  Tebuconazole 250 EC  
Custodia Fungicide  Azoxystrobin 11% + Tebuconazole 18.3% SC 
Bavistin Fungicide  Carbendazim 50% WP 
Tata Ayaan Fungicide  Kresoxim-methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG 

 

Get a comprehensive view of Sheath blight disease and discover vital protection measures. Click here now!

7. Tungro Disease Of Rice

Causal agent: Rice Tungro virus (RTSV and RTBV) 

Affecting Stages: All growth stages especially the vegetative stage 

Vector: Leafhoppers 

Symptoms Of Tungro Disease Of Rice: 

  • Stunted plants, yellow to orange discolouration in leaves. 

Favourable Conditions For Tungro Disease Of Rice: 

The presence of vectors, and virus sources through infected stubbles and weeds in the field are favourable conditions for RTV infection. 

Buy Chemical Management For Tungro Disease Of Rice: 

(Note: If the crop is infected with Rice Tungro Virus, it cannot be managed or cured. The below products can be used to control the vector and prevent it from spreading the virus in the paddy field)  

Product Name  Technical content 
Chess Insecticide  Pymetrozine 50 % in Water Dispersible Granules [WDG] 
Lara 909 Insecticide  Chloropyriphos50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC 
Anshul Laksh Insecticide  Lambda Cyhalothrin 5% EC 
Anant Insecticide  Thiamethoxam 25 % WG 

8. Foot rot / Bakanae / Foolish Seedling Disease

Causal agent: Gibberella fujikuroi 

Affecting stages: Seedling to tillering stage 

Symptoms: 

  • It affects both seedlings in the nursery and plants in the main field 
  • Infected plants produce tall and thin tillers with yellowish-green and pale leaves. 

Favourable Conditions: 

Infected seeds, strong wind and water can create favourable conditions for disease infection. 

Buy Chemical Management: 

Product Name  Technical content 
Roko Fungicide (For Seed Treatment)  Thiophanate Methyl 70% WP 
Companion Fungicide  Mancozeb 63% + Carbendazim 12% WP 
Nativo Fungicide  Tebuconazole 50% + Trifloxystrobin 25% WG  
Tata Ayaan Fungicide  Kresoxim-methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG 

Prevent foot rot disease from crippling your paddy crops. Click here to get an effective protection measure.

9. Stem Rot Of Rice:

Causal agent: Sclerotium oryzae 

Affecting stages: Early tillering stage 

Symptoms Of Stem Rot Of Rice: 

  • Initially, small black lesions appear on the outer leaf sheath 
  • Later, the infected culm lodges, and produces chalky grains 

Favourable Conditions For Stem Rot Of Rice: 

Application of high nitrogen fertilizer, Infected stubbles, and plants with wounds as a result of insect attack may create favourable conditions for disease infection.  

Buy Chemical Management For Stem Rot Of Rice: 

Product Name  Technical content 
Bavistin Fungicide  Carbendazim 50% WP 
Avancer Glow Fungicide  8.3% Azoxystrobin + 66.7% WG Mancozeb 
Avtar Fungicide  Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4% 
BControl Fungicide  Validamycin 3% L 

 

Don’t let Stem Rot disease destroy your paddy fields. Click here to know how to identify and control it.

10. Grassy Stunt Disease Of Rice

Causal agent: Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus 

Affecting stages: All growth stages but most vulnerable at the tillering stage 

Vector: Brown plant hopper (BPH) 

Symptoms Of Grassy Stunt Disease Of Rice: 

  • Stunted growth, excessive tillering 
  • Grassy and rosette appearance of diseased hills 

Favourable Conditions For Grassy Stunt Disease Of Rice: 

Places, where rice is grown continuously and around the year, may create favourable conditions for the vector to spread the disease.  

Buy Chemical Management For Grassy Stunt Disease Of Rice: 

(Note: If the crop is infected with Rice grassy stunt disease, it cannot be managed or cured. The below products can be used to control the vector brown plant hopper (BPH) and prevent it from spreading the virus in the paddy field) 

Product Name  Technical content 
Lancer Gold Insecticide  Acephate 50 % + Imidacloprid 1.8 % SP 
Predator Insecticide  Chloropyriphos 50 % EC 
Katyayani BPH super Insecticide  Pymetrozine 50% WG 
Odis Insecticide  Buprofezin 20% + Acephate 50% 

 

Learn how to tackle Grassy Stunt Disease in paddy and protect your harvest. 

11. Rice Ragged Stunt Virus

Causal agent: Rice ragged stunt virus 

Affecting stages: All growth stages but most vulnerable at the tillering stage 

Vector: Brown plant hopper (BPH) 

Symptoms Of Rice Ragged Stunt Virus: 

  • Leaves with uneven edges, leaf blade twisted into spiral shape at the base giving a ‘ragged’ appearance 
  • Stunted growth, incomplete panicle emergence 

Favourable Conditions For Rice Ragged Stunt Virus: 

Areas where rice is grown continuously and all year round which provides a continuous host for the vector may create favourable conditions for the spread of disease.  

Buy Chemical Management For Rice Ragged Stunt Virus: 

(Note: If the crop is infected with Rice ragged stunt disease, it cannot be managed or cured. The below products can be used to control the vector brown plant hopper (BPH) and prevent it from spreading the virus in the paddy field) 

Product Name  Technical content 
Lancer Gold Insecticide  Acephate 50 % + Imidacloprid 1.8 % SP 
Predator Insecticide  Chloropyriphos 50 % EC 
Katyayani BPH super Insecticide  Pymetrozine 50% WG 
Odis Insecticide  Buprofezin 20% + Acephate 50% 

 

Protect your paddy crop from Ragged Stunt Disease. Click here for valuable information and practical steps to ensure crop safety!

Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.

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