The rose is one of the first fragrant flowers that man has cultivated, and it holds a special place among flower harvests. It is a perennial crop that yields profitably for three to four successive years of planting. Its several varieties provide magnificent blooms in wonderful colours, shapes and sizes. From ancient times, roses have been grown for their essential oils in France, Cyprus, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Morocco, United States and Bulgaria. Many species can be found growing naturally in India, primarily in the Himalayan mountains. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh are the main rose-producing states, although only a little amount of roses are also cultivated in Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. It is primarily used as a cut flower, in garden decorations and in the creation of products like gulkand, pankhuri, rose water and rose oil.
Rose Crop at a Glance
Botanical Name: Rosa hybrida (There are more than 360 species under genus Rosa)
Common Name: Rose (English), Gulab (Hindi), Gulabi (Telugu and Kannada), Golapa (Bengali), Golap (Odia)
Crop Season: Rose is a perennial crop that can be cultivated all year round. In the midst of a humid summer and a lot of rain, planting might be postponed. The optimum time to grow roses in plains is between September and October when the rains have stopped. Depending on the climate, planting can be done in hills between October to November or February to March, although the earlier season is more ideal.
Crop type: Horticulture/Floriculture
Varieties/Hybrids: Sent Rose, Five star, Ruby, Ruby red, Arka Parimal, Parimala are suitable for open field condition whereas, Tajmahal, Rath ki Rani, Eiffel Tower, Chicago Peace, Avalanche are suitable as cut flowers in polyhouses.
The secret to success with roses is proper soil preparation. But, as long as the soil has adequate drainage, any soil is suitable for growing roses. A medium loamy soil with enough organic matter and a pH between 6.0 and 7.5 is optimal. Up to a depth of 50 cm, the soil should have a fine tilth and strong drainage capabilities. The soil should have spent at least a week in the sun and be free of any gravel, stones, brick fragments, or other foreign materials.
A key element controlling rose plant development is temperature. Planting of rose should be adjusted in such a way that the plants get exposed to 20 to 25°C temperature during the day and 15 to 18°C temperature during the night. Winter brings cold temperatures, which improves the quality of flowers. A light period of less than 12 hours results in fewer blooms and flowers of worse quality. When it comes to illnesses and pests that impact development and flowering, humidity is a significant factor. Higher atmospheric humidity causes water drops to collect on rose leaves, which, if they do so for an extended length of time, can result in a variety of fungal infections.
Land Preparation for Rose
The rose farm should be well pulverized and 10 to 12 t/ha of FYM should be added to the soil. Plots/beds that are 1 to 1.5 metres broad and 30 to 40 metres long should be made after preparing the land for rose cultivation. If the soil is light and has good drainage, planting can be done without building beds. Before it starts to rain, pits need to be excavated so that the earth can settle. Prepare pits that are 20 to 30 cm wide, 30 cm deep.
The planting distance is determined by the area and variety of roses. 60 cm x 30 cm spacing can be adopted for production of cut flowers. Typically, in open field conditions row to row spacing of 2 meters and plant to plant spacing of 1 meter is recommended.
Propagation of Rose
The rose is commercially reproduced by cuttings or budding, whilst polyanthus, climbers, and ramblers are often propagated through hard wood cutting and miniatures are propagated through softwood cutting. Similarly, T- budding is a common technique of propagation for hybrids and floribundas. In commercial scale rose seeds are not used for propagation of roses.
Irrigation and After Care
The newly planted roses need to be watered often at first. Following that, they may receive one watering every five days in the summer and one every 10 days in the winter. Sandier soil can require more regular irrigation. On the other side, the watering interval might need to be extended if the soil is dense and moisture-retentive. In order to protect the roots of the plants, it is important to avoid water to stand in plant beds or close to their bases for an extended period of time. Drip method of irrigation is highly suitable for rose farming.
Manures and Fertilizers
Using organic manures is strongly advised for higher-quality flowers with longer shelf lives. Before planting, fill each pit hole with 100g of SSP and 5kg of FYM. Moreover, it is advised to add 100-200 gm of urea, SSP and MOP to each plant after every pruning. For better-quality flowers, the same fertilizer mixture should also be administered throughout the summer (April–May) and at the flowering stage.
Intercultivation Practices for Rose
The cultivation of roses is severely hampered by weeds. Weeds serve as habitats for several illnesses and pests in addition to consuming water and nutrients. The manual approach works well when used correctly and often. Yet, the chemical technique is affordable, practical and effective in getting rid of weeds with just one or two applications. The herbicides 2,4-D and Nitrofen are advised for use in rose.
Pruning is the practice of removing undesirable and unproductive parts of a plant in order to increase the plant’s vigour and productivity. It is usually performed in the month of October to November. Applying Bordeaux paste to the cut ends soon after pruning is advised to protect the plants from infections.
Crop Protection for Rose plant
Aphids (Macrosiphum rosae)
The incidence of aphids on foliage and flower buds is higher in the months of January and February. They are tiny and have a green tint to their black colour. Both the nymph and the adult ingest the sap from young branches, buds and flowers. They eat the cell sap, stain the leaves and have an impact on flower buds, causing them to fall and lose their attractiveness. Spraying Chloropyriphos + Cypermethrin at the rate of 2 ml/litre or Diafenthiuron at the rate of 1 gm/litre water, will successfully manage this.
Thrips (Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus)
Adults are dark brown or black in colour, whereas nymphs are reddish. Both nymphs and adults infest flowers and leaves as a result of which, flower buds fail to open and develop abnormally and leaves become sickly, crinkled and deformed. After removing flowers, especially delicate ones, spray the foliage with carbaryl (3 g/l), Spraying Chloropyriphos + Cypermethrin at the rate of 2 ml/litre water or Acetamaprid at the rate of 0.5 gm/litre water.
Scales (Lindingaspis rossi)
The stem is entirely covered in red scales. Both nymphs and adults ingest sap, which causes plants to dry out and die. Effective methods include cutting and burning the infected branches, rubbing off scales with cotton dipped in kerosene, diesel, or methylated spirit and in extreme cases foliar spraying with Imidacloprid at the rate of 0.75-1 ml/litre water or Acetamaprid at the rate of 0.5 g/litre water twice at pruning, and during March to April.
Dieback (Diplodia rosarum)
This severe rose disease manifests itself after pruning. Pruned shoots begin to dry out and turn black from the top down. The stems deteriorate and turn black. There is a brown line and black patches at the intersection of healthy and dry branches. The infected plant parts should be dehisced and burned, and the cut ends should be painted with Chaubattia paste (4 parts Copper Carbonate + 4 parts Red lead + 5 parts linseed oil) or Bordeaux paste. Moreover, the best fertilizer dosage should be used and appropriate drainage should be made possible.
Black Spot (Diplocarpon rosae)
This illness manifests itself in the moist months. On either side of the leaf, a noticeable, round black spot (less than 1 cm in diameter) with fringed borders appears; the leaves get chlorotic, dry up, and drop early. Spraying fungicides Captan (0.2%) or Carbendazim (0.5-0.75 g/liter of water) at intervals of every two weeks will effectively control it.
Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa)
On the surfaces of young leaves, shoots and buds, the symptom manifests as a powdery material that is grayish-white in colour. It usually occurs in areas with low temperatures and high humidity. In severe circumstances, spray 0.3% wettable sulphur or dust sulphur at the rate of 25 kg/ha.
Harvesting and Grading
From the first year on, flowers begin to bloom whilst, second to tenth year is considered to be economically viable yield. When the flower buds are halfway open, flowers are gathered. They are gathered with long stalks at the tight bud stage for cut blooms. The length of the flower stem determines how the blooms are ranked. Depending on the cultivar, it ranges from 40 to 110 cm and is packaged 20 to a bunch.
The rose crop typically yields around 7.5 t/ha (loose flowers) and 300 to 350 flowers per square meter (cut flowers).