Are you tired of struggling with chilli cultivation and not getting the results you want? If so, you’re in the right place!
Our article on chilli cultivation practices is just what you need to take your crop to the next level! From choosing the right variety of chilli to preparing the soil, providing adequate water, controlling pests and diseases, and harvesting your chillies at the right time, this article covers it all! By following our step-by-step guide, you’ll be able to grow chillies that not only taste great but also contain essential vitamins and minerals. Imagine having a bountiful harvest of healthy, vibrant chillies that you can use in your cooking or sell at the market. So, if you’re ready to increase your farm yield with quality produce, make sure to read and follow these cultivation practices. You won’t be disappointed!
Climate and Soil requirement
For optimal growth, chilli plants thrive in both warm and humid climate, while dry weather conditions enhance fruit maturation. The ideal temperature range for its cultivation is between 20-25°C. Heavy rainfall can lead to poor fruit set, and when coupled with high humidity, it can cause the fruit to rot. Chilli plants cannot tolerate frost. An ideal soil type for chilli cultivation is a well-drained, loamy soil, rich in organic matter, and has a pH range of 6.5-7.5.
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It is important to choose the right variety/hybrid of chilli based on your soil type, climate, and location. Select the variety that can adapt well to your local weather conditions.
|Top 8 Chilli Seeds||Features|
|Armour Chilli F1 Hybrid Seeds||
|Royal Bullet Chilli Seeds||
|HPH 5531 Chilli Seeds||
|NS 1101 Chilli Seeds||
|Sarpan 102 Byadgi Chilli||
|VNR 145 Green Chilli||
|Rudraksh 101 F1 Chilli Seeds||
|Sarpan Chilli Bajji Seeds
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Time of sowing
Chilli can be sown during Jan – Feb, Jun – Jul and Sept – Oct.
Seed rate for optimum yield
Varieties – 400 gm/acre; Hybrids – 80 – 100 g/acre.
If you want to increase your chances of a successful chilli crop, it’s important to know that chilli seedlings are typically grown in a nursery first and can be grown in either nursery beds or protrays before being transplanted to the main field. This can help ensure healthy growth and a higher yield.
For raising seedlings for 1 acre field, you will need 40 m2 / 1 cent of nursery area.
|Nursery Raised Bed||Protrays|
(Note: Protrays can be maintained inside a green house or shade net house)
Main Field Preparation
Plough the soil 2 –3 times to get a fine tilth. Incorporate 10t of FYM to the soil during last ploughing. Apply 1 liter of Azospirillium and Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of well decomposed manure or cake. Prepare ridges and furrows at 60 cm spacing.
Your seedlings will be ready for transplanting after 30 – 40 days. Irrigate the furrows and then transplant 40 – 45 days old seedlings on the ridges. Plant seedlings of varieties spaced 60 cm between rows and 45 cm between plants, while hybrids spaced 75 cm between rows and 60 cm between plants.
Maximizing your chilli crop yield is all about proper fertilizer management. Choose the right type of fertilizer and apply it at the right time and in the right amount. The general dose of NPK recommendation for chilli crop is 48:24:16 kg/acre. Due to its lengthy growing season, it is important to apply manure and fertilizers carefully in split doses to ensure supply of nutrients at all growth stages.
|Nutrient||Fertilizer||Dosage per acre||Time of application|
|Organic||FYM||10 t/acre||At the time of last ploughing|
|Biofertilizer||Azospirillium||1 lit of product + 50 kg of FYM||At the time of ploughing|
|Phosphobacteria||1 lit of product + 50 kg of FYM|
|26 kg||30 DAT|
|26 kg||60 DAT|
|P||Single Super Phosphate (SSP)||150 kg||Basal|
|K||Potassium sulphate (SOP)||13 kg||Basal (SOP will improve chilli quality)|
|13 kg||20 – 30 DAT|
|B||Anshul Maxbor||1 gm/lit water||1st spray – Before flowering
2nd spray – After 10 to 12 days interval
|Zn||Zinc micronutrient fertilizer||Foliar: 0.5 – 0.6 gm/lit water||3 sprays with 10 days interval from 40 DAT|
|NPK + Mn||19:19:19 + Mn||Foliar: 1 gm/lit water||60 DAT|
(*DAT – Days after transplanting)
Irrigate the field immediately after transplanting. You can subsequently irrigate once a week or 10 days depending upon the soil moisture condition and weather. Chilli plants are least tolerant to heavy moisture so, ensure that you water the plants only when required. The flowering and fruit development stages are considered critical periods for the plant’s water requirements.
If you see plants showing wilting / drooping of leaves at mid-day, irrigate the field. Chilli is normally cultivated under rainfed conditions, however irrigated chilli crops are also grown. If you are growing chilli under irrigated condition, adopt furrow or drip irrigation. Overhead irrigation can be avoided as it will promote disease development due to wetting of leaves.
Earthing up and Mulching
Perform earthing up, 30 days after transplanting. Then, use paddy straw or dried leaves for mulching. Mulches will help to conserve moisture and also reduce weed growth.
Spray Pendimethalin (600 – 700 ml/acre) as pre-emergence herbicide. Give two hand weeding, first within 20 – 25 DAT, after herbicide application while next after 20 – 25 days of 1st weeding to keep the field free from weeds.
(Note: Follow product’s description or label for herbicide application)
If you’re additionally looking for ways to increase yield and profitability from your chilli field, ‘intercrops’ are the best solution. Intercrop chilli with coriander (1:3), onion (paired rows), or groundnut (3:1) to get higher net returns. It also helps to improve soil fertility and reduce pressure of pests and diseases.
Use of Plant Growth Regulators (PGR)
|PGR product||Technical content||Dosage||Time of application|
|Miracle Growth Regulator
(Enhances vegetative growth, flower and fruit setting)
|Triacontanol EW 0.1 %||1 – 1.25 ml/lit water||25 DAT, 45DAT, 65 DAT*|
|Planofix Alpha Growth Promoter
(Prevents shedding of flower buds, increase fruit set and quality)
|Alpha Naphthyl Acetic Acid 4.5% SL||0.2 – 0.3 ml/lit water||1st spray: During flowering stage
2nd spray: 20 – 30 days after 1st spray
(*DAT – Days after transplanting)
Plant Protection Practices
Pests of Chilli crop
Keep your chilli plants pest-free with proper pest management.
|Yellow muranai mite||
|Root knot nematode||
Are thrips and mites causing trouble in your chilli field? Click here to learn more on how to get rid of them for good!
Diseases affecting chilli plants
Are your chilli plants showing signs of yellowing, wilting or stunted growth? These could be symptoms of a disease affecting your crops. Don’t panic, you can still save your harvest! Know the signs of disease early and take action to protect your crop and prevent further damage. Don’t wait until it’s too late.
|Anthracnose or Fruit rot||
|Bacterial leaf spot||
|Cercospora leaf spot||
(Leaf curl, mosaic)
Control vectors (whitefly/Thrips/Aphids):
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NOTE: Follow product’s label or description to know the right time of application.
The appropriate time to harvest chillies varies depending on the type and intended use of the crop. Chilli plants typically start flowering around two months after transplanting, and it takes about another month for the fruits to reach the green stage. If the chillies are intended for vegetable consumption, you can harvest them when they are still green. On the other hand, if the chillies are meant for drying, they can be left to fully ripen before harvesting.
You can harvest the first yield when the fruits are green around 75 DAT. Subsequently, ripened red fruits can be harvested at 1–2 week intervals. The yield of green chillies will be 3 – 4 times higher than dry chillies.
- Varieties: 4 – 6 t/acre (green chillies); 0.8 – 1 t/ha (dry pods)
- Hybrid: 10 t/ha (green chillies)
It is important to keep in mind that you preserve the red colour of the chilli fruits during the drying process. You can dry the chillies under the sun for a week or more, depending on the weather conditions. Turn the chillies regularly to ensure even drying and to prevent mold growth. Alternatively, you can also use a solar dryer or oven (8 hr at 60°C, then reducing it to 50°C) for drying if available.