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Fish Farming: Fish Pond Preparation

Fish is a popular food item for many across the world. Statistics show that almost 60% of Indians live to have fish on their menu. There is a steady increase in demand for fish and it is not easy for the farmers to meet this requirement. Thus fish farming in India has emerged as a popular farming idea and people are eagerly developing fish farming business plans.

The profitable fish farming earnings range from INR 3000 to 9000 for a small unit. Depending on the size of your farm, you may have to spend up to INR 25,000 to 50,000 and get an overall earnings of  INR 2-4 lakhs per acre, at a rate of INR 100 to 140 per kg of fish. Needless to say that the price will be different for each state. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Gujarat are the highest fish producers in India.

What is Pisciculture?

Pisciculture is the scientific term used for fish farming which generally involves processes such as rearing and breeding the fishes in an artificial environment. It also refers to the commercial farming of fish. There are different methods of fish farming which we will discuss here.

Types of fish farming

The main types of fish farming include aquaculture, pond fish farming, and biofloc fish farming.

  1. Aquaculture means growing aquatic organisms in controlled aquatic mediums on a large scale. Fish farming is the most common aquaculture practice. With proper food, quality water, and controlled temperature, it is one of the easiest methods to gain profit in fish farming.
  2. Biofloc Fish Farming (BFT) is a type of water treatment plant having microorganisms that can break down high nitrogen content and balance the nutrient supply. It is integrated with fish farming to provide a continuous nutrient supply for the growing fish. Only certain types of fish can be grown in these controlled systems such as a pond or tank but they can get high nutrition and will also be safe for the environment.
  3. Pond fish farming is an artificial aquatic system where fish are grown, Shellfish and fin fishes are the most common types grown in these systems.

How to start fish farming?

Whether you are starting simple fish farming in Kerala or extensive fish farming in Assam, there are certain procedures to be followed. Before you start a fish farming business do proper research to understand the process, preparatory methods, and the various rules and regulations involved in a fish farm. To get profits from your efforts, you should have a strong business plan for fish farming.

  • Step 1

Preparing the pond is the first step. A pond can be temporary or permanent. The former is used for seasonal fish farming for some fast-growing species. You must also set up water inlets and outlets, etc. You should also take measures to optimize the pH level of the water. It will be different for each fish species.

  • Step 2

Choosing suitable breeds of fish is the next step. You should consider the growing environments, market demands, and maintenance methods before choosing the breeds. You may do monoculture (growing a single type of fish) or polyculture (growing different types of fish together).

  • Step 3

The next step is the maintenance of the growing environment of fish culture. This involves taking care of the fish, maintaining water pH levels, feeding them, changing the water etc. You should also scout on a daily basis to remove any unhealthy fish from the pond. Taking proper measures to treat and prevent diseases in the fish farm is also an important step involved here.

  • Step 4

The final step is to find a market for your yield. You may choose the local market or choose to export the fish. The former will be easier but will get you fewer profits than the latter option. As a beginner, sticking to the local market will help you be successful. Once you have established your fish farm, you can go to the next level.

Is fish farming profitable?

Yes, fish farming is a lucrative business in India. Fish farming in Bihar will be a good choice as it has an Aquatic Animal Health Lab to support the farmers. Studies show that fish farming in UP is steadily increasing with more profits for the farmers. It is the integrated fish farming in Tamil Nadu which is gaining momentum in that state. Fish farming in Punjab had the highest freshwater yield last year.


Setting up a commercial fish farm may be difficult. But once you have all the necessary things in place it is easier to maintain and get good benefits. It may take a bit longer for you to start getting profits. But once you establish yourself, the market is steadily growing for you to get continuous benefits.

Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.


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