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Nurturing India’s Agriculture: A Closer Look at Onion Price Dynamics

In a pivotal move aimed at bolstering domestic onion availability and controlling skyrocketing prices, the Government of India has implemented a strategic measure. Effective from the 29th of October 2023 until the 31st of December 2023, a Minimum Export Price (MEP) of USD 800 per ton has been imposed on onion exports. This decision comes as a robust effort to discourage the export of onions and maintain a steady supply within the domestic market. The repercussions of this bold initiative have already been felt in the vibrant agricultural landscape of Maharashtra, where onion prices have witnessed a remarkable correction. In the past week, prices have shown a significant decline, ranging from 5% to 9% compared to their previous highs.


This move by the Indian government signifies a proactive stance to strike a balance between serving the needs of the local population and safeguarding the interests of the farming community. The Department of Consumer Affairs has taken up the mantle of closely monitoring onion exports and pricing on a daily basis. Their primary objective is to ensure stable prices and consistent availability for the consumers across the country. 

With November approaching and the holiday season accelerating demand, the department has initiated the release of onion buffer stocks into the market. This allocation includes sales via traditional mandis as well as special discounted sales to retail consumers in areas with soaring prices. As part of this strategy, a network of 685 mobile retail outlets spanning over 170 cities has been established, making onions more accessible and affordable to the masses.In addition to this, National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation (NAFED) and National Cooperative Consumers’ Federation of India (NCCF) have sprung into action by procuring an additional 2 Lakh Metric Tons (LMT) of onions from the recent kharif harvest. This procurement is strategically targeted at distribution in regions where onion prices tend to surge, thereby maintaining price stability and safeguarding consumer interests. 

Key Points

  1. Price Correction in Maharashtra: Within a week of implementing the Minimum Export Price, onion prices in Maharashtra have witnessed a decline of 5% to 9% from their recent peak. The weighted average price across all markets in the state has dropped by 4.5%, indicating the effectiveness of this policy in regulating prices.
  2. Daily Monitoring by the Department of Consumer Affairs: The Department of Consumer Affairs is actively monitoring onion exports and prices on a daily basis. This vigilant approach ensures that domestic onion prices remain stable and that consumers can access this essential ingredient without substantial price fluctuations.
  3. Buffer Stock Release: Anticipating increased demand in November, the Department has initiated the release of onion buffer stock into the market. These onions are made available through both mandi (wholesale market) sales and discounted retail sales in areas with high onion prices. This proactive measure aims to provide consumers with affordable onions and protect their interests.
  4. Mobile Retail Outlets: To further enhance accessibility, retail sales are being conducted through 685 mobile retail outlets, which cover over 170 cities. This initiative is a significant step in making onions more accessible to urban and semi-urban consumers, mitigating the impact of price fluctuations.
  5. Procurement by NAFED and NCCF: National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation (NAFED) and National Cooperative Consumers’ Federation (NCCF) have launched procurement efforts to secure an additional 2 lakh metric tons (LMT) of kharif harvest onions. These onions will be distributed in areas with high onion prices, ensuring that consumers are not burdened by steep costs and that onion prices remain under control.
  6. Price Stability: The immediate decline in onion prices due to export restrictions can be a concern for farmers who rely on the international market. However, the government’s buffer stock and procurement efforts aim to stabilize prices, ensuring that farmers continue to receive a fair value for their produce.
  7. Sustainable Production: By controlling exports, the government intends to enhance domestic availability. This approach encourages farmers to focus on sustainable production for the domestic market, safeguarding their livelihoods.
  8. Consumer Accessibility: The release of buffer stock and discounted retail sales, particularly through mobile outlets, expands the reach of farmers’ produce, ensuring that consumers can access onions without facing exorbitant prices.
  9. Collaboration with Cooperatives: Farmers’ interests are further protected through the procurement efforts led by NAFED and NCCF. These cooperatives work in tandem with the government to ensure that farmers are not left with unsold produce, and prices remain reasonable.


The Government of India’s recent decision to impose a Minimum Export Price on onions is a significant step towards stabilizing onion prices and ensuring their availability to consumers. By actively monitoring prices, releasing buffer stocks, expanding retail access, and collaborating with cooperatives, the government is safeguarding the interests of both farmers and consumers. This approach not only addresses the immediate concerns of onion prices but also lays the foundation for a more sustainable and stable onion market in India. As the nation continues to celebrate its culinary diversity, this policy ensures that the flavor of India remains accessible to all.

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