India in the year 2021 alone exported 263,075.67 metric tons of grapes to the world for the worth of Rs. 2,302.16 crores. India’s major export destinations are the Netherlands, Bangladesh, Russia, the U.K., United Arab Emirates and Germany. India is the seventh largest grapes producer in the world. India produces grapes mainly for consumption. These grapes are not used for wine production. In India major grapes-growing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Mizoram. Grapes usually grow in hot and dry climatic conditions.
Difficulty Level: Hard
Selection of Seeds
There are four different kinds of grapes: white, red, with seeds and without seeds. Some of the popular varieties are Bangalore Blue, Gulabi, Beauty Seedless and Sharad Seedless, Anab-e-Shahi, Dilkhush, Perlette, Pusa Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Tas-A-Ganesh, Sonaka, Muscat, Pachadraksha, Arka Shyam, Arka Kanchan, Arka Hans, Manik Chaman, Sonaka, Flame Seedless and Manik Chaman.
Grapes Seed Treatment
Grapes are usually propagated through clipping and cutting. The hardwood cutting is treated with thiram @3 gm/lit water and then set it in a polythene bag. The hardwood clippings are then stored in a shaded nursery.
Land Preparations for Grapes
Grapes are usually propagated through the clipping of hardwood cuttings. The land is ploughed three to four times. The main field is then leveled by a tractor. It is then followed by the digging of pits, with a spacing of 1.2 m. X 1.2 m. for wider varieties like Anab-e-Shahi and Bangalore Blue and shorter pits of 90 X 90 cm for smaller varieties like Thompson Seedless, Perlette and Beauty Seedless. As a basal dose apply 5-10 tonnes of FYM/manure or apply 5-10 kg of FYM/manure, 100 grams of Urea, 80 grams of phosphorus and 300 grams of potassium per each vine/plant.
Soil Type Requirements for Grapes
Grapes grow in a temperate climate with dry conditions. Therefore the soil has to have really good drainage to avoid water logging. Grapes require a rich loamy soil that has good drainage. The soil has to be dry and the pH has to be around 6.5 – 7.0.
Grapes should be pruned properly after the propagation. Grape is a hard crop to cultivate, however as India’s grape production increases so do the world’s demand for it. Therefore grape is a promising crop with high returns in the future.
- What are the popular grapes varieties cultivated?
|Maharashtra, Northern Karnataka, Telangana||Thompson Seedless, Sonaka, Manik Chaman, Sharad seedless, Crimson seedless|
|South Interior Karnataka||Thompson Seedless, Sonaka, Flame Seedless, Sharad Seedless, Crimson Seedless, Red Globe|
|Tamil Nadu||Thompson seedless, Gulabi, Bangalore blue|
|North India||Flame Seedless, Perlette, Beauty Seedless|
- How are grapes propagated?
Grapes can be propagated through the clipping of hardwood cuttings.
- What is the ideal growth condition for grapes cultivation?
Grapes grow in a temperate climate with dry conditions. Therefore, the soil has to have good drainage to avoid water logging. It requires a rich loamy soil that has good drainage. Locations where the annual rainfall does not exceed 900 mm are ideal for its cultivation.
- What is the fertilizer recommendation for grapes?
The general dose of fertilizer recommendation for seedless grapes is 121:121:242 kg/acre. The commercial quantity to be applied in the vineyard is given in the table below.
|Nutrient||Fertilizers||General Dose (per acre)|
|Bone Meal||3 kg/vine|
|Castor Cake||3 kg/vine|
|Ammonium Sulphate||583 kg|
Single Super Phosphate (SSP)
|Double Super Phosphate||380 kg|
|K||Muriate of Potash (MOP) (or)||405 kg|
|Sulphate of Potash||486 kg|
- What is the plant growth regulator used in grapes for enhancement of fruit bud?
|1st spray||April Pruning||405|
|2nd spray||April Pruning||809|
|3rd spray||October Pruning||202|
(Pruning – Practice of removing dead or living parts from a plant so as to increase fruit or flower production or improve the form)
- What are the different methods of propagating grapes?
Grapes propagation includes hardwood cuttings, greenwood cuttings, grafting, layering and seeds (not commercially used).
(Grafting – It is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called scion while the lower part is called the rootstock)
- What is the ideal season for grapes cultivation?
Planting is usually avoided during the rainy season. The best time for planting is February – March in North India, November – January in the peninsular India and December – January in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.