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Field Preparation for Maize

Maize or corn Zea mays is the world’s most versatile crop. India is the 7th largest producer of maize in the world. In the year 2021-22 alone the country has exported 3,690,469.12 MT of maize to the world for the worth of Rs. 7,615.46 crores.  India’s major maize-growing states are Andra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu. Due to its versatile nature, maize is a very important crop that is grown in non-traditional regions like Jammu and Kasmir and other North Eastern states.

Difficulty Level:


Selection of Seeds:

There are well over 3000 varieties of corn that are available in the market today. Popular varieties that are grown today are Ambrosia Hybrid Corn,  Jubilee Hybrid Corn,  Honey Select Hybrid Corn,  Golden Bantam Corn, Pioneer( P3396 and P3344), Dekalb (DKC 9178 and DKC 9081), Syngenta (NK7328 and NK30), CP (818, and 333), Tata seeds (DMH 8255), Advanta (Hi-Brix 53 ), Kaveri Seeds ( KMH 1411)  and Hytech Sona – 5101.

Pre-soaking of Seeds:

Seeds need to be soaked overnight for better germination. As corn seeds are shrivelled for preservation purposes.

Maize Seed Treatment:

To prevent termites and other soil-borne insects the maize seeds are treated with Imidacloprid 70WS (7.5-8g a.i /Kg of seeds).

To control seed borne diseases, treat maize seeds with carbendazim or thiram at 2g/kg of seed. The seed treatment for maize will prevent the seeds from seed borne diseases like smut, downy mildew, charcol rot etc . After the treatment shade dry the seeds for 15 minutes and later can go for sowing of seeds in a field.

Field Preparations for Maize:

  • Soil Type Requirements for maize:

A well-drained sandy red soil or black cotton soil is suitable for maize production.

  • Soil pH for Maize Production:

Maize, due to its hardy nature can grow very well in soil with pH levels anywhere from 5.5 to 7.5, depending on the variety. The optimal pH is 6 to 6.5.

Land Preparations of Maize:

The land preparation for maize needs to be weeded completely. Farmers can use four prangs and completely remove all the weeds. This includes residue from previous crop production. Apply 12.5 tons/acre of FYM or composted coir pith and apply 10 packets of Azospirillum in the field and plough the land five to six times for a fine tilth. Then proceed to prepare ridges and furrows with 45 cm spacing. Ridges and furrows help in sasaving irrigation water.

Maize Sowing:

Maize is traditionally sown directly in the field. The seeds are sown at 1/3rd of the ridge from the bottom.


Maize is a hardy crop that can be grown anywhere in the country. Maize also requires less maintenance and high return due to its high demand. Unlike other cash crops like rice and sugarcane maize also requires significantly less amount of water. Corn is definitely highly recommended for less effort with high returns.


  1. Suggest some popular varieties of maize?
States  Varieties/Hybrid 
Andhra Pradesh 


Shine hybrid maize seeds rise, Pioneer Agro Corn seed/ maize seed, Rise-303 Shine Hybrid maize seeds
Telangana  Pioneer Agro Corn seed/ Maize seed, Shine Hybrid Maize seeds rise 
Karnataka  Rise-303 Shine Hybrid maize seeds, Pioneer Agro corn seed/ maize seed, Rise-202 shine hybrid maize seeds

Shine Hybrid Maize seeds rise-404 seeds 

Tamil Nadu  Pioneer Agro Corn seed/ maize seed 


  1. How is seed treatment done for Maize?

Maize seeds can be treated with Fortenza duo insecticide at 4ml/kg of seed mainly to control fall armyworm. 

  1. Can I grow maize in sandy soil?

A well-drained sandy red soil or black cotton soil is suitable for maize production. 

  1. What is the seed rate for maize?

For Hybrids/Composites – 7 to 9 kg/acre 

Fodder – 16 to 20 kg/acre. 

  1. What is the ideal spacing of maize for optimum yield?

Adopt a spacing of 60 x 20 cm. 

  1. What is the fertilizer recommendation for maize?

The general dose of fertilizer recommendation for maize is 60:26:26 kg/acre. The commercial quantity to be applied in the field is mentioned in the table below: 

Nutrient  Fertilizers  General Dose (per acre) 
Organic  FYM or coir pith compost   5 ton 
N  Urea (or)  109 kg 
Ammonium Sulphate  244 kg 
P  Di Ammonium Phosphate (DAP)  56 kg 
K  Muriate of Potash (MOP) (or)  43 kg 
Sulphate of Potash  52 kg 

(For Zinc deficient soil) 

Zinc Micronutrient Fertilizer (Z3)  Foliar application: 0.5 – 1 g/l 

Soil application: 10 kg 


(For iron deficient soil) 

Shamrock Iron (Ferrous) Chelated Micronutrient   Foliar application: 

1gm/1 litre 

Soil application: 10 kg 

Biofertilizer  Azospirillum (Pioneer Agro)   4 kg (Soil application) 


  1. What is the pre-emergence herbicide used to control weeds in maize field?

Apply Atrazine 50 WP (Atrataf at 1 -2 g/l) as pre-emergence on 3 – 5 DAS using Backpack/ Knapsack/ Rocker sprayer followed by one hand weeding on 30 – 35 DAS.

Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.


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