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Field Preparation for Mustard

There are three kinds of mustard: brown, black and white. The most popular one is the black mustard. There has been a production of 109.50 lakh tonnes of mustard in the year 2020-2021 in India. Rajasthan is India’s largest mustard producer. The top five mustard producers are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Gujarat and West Bengal. In India 60-65% of its domestic demand is for oil consumption. In the year 2020-2021 the country’s mustard oil production was 13 million tonnes. 

Difficulty Level: Medium

Selection of Seeds

There are wide varieties of mustard available in the market. There are NRCDR 02, NRCDR 601, NRCHB 101, DRMRIJ 31, DRMR150-35, NRCYS 05-02, Toria, Brown Saron, Varuna, Shekhar, Vaibhav, Vardhan, Rohini, Rohani, Kranti, Krishna, Vardan, Vaibhav, Narendra, Rai-8501, Kiran, Hayala PVC (9-22-1), Rai Varuna, T- 36 (Yellow), ITSA, Sangam, TL 15, Bhavani, T -36, PT 303, PT 30, Gaurani (B54), 18-2-9, PT 507, D. K 1, and T 9 (Black). 

Mustard Seed Treatment

The mustard seeds must be treated with thiram at 3 grams per kg. The seeds also need to be soaked and stored in the dark for 24 hours.

Land Preparations for Mustard

Mustard is best cultivated during winter months. The field should be properly cleaned without any weeds and clods. One hectare of land requires 5-6 kg of seeds. The basal dose of nutrients  for a hectare is 25 tons of FYM, 25kg of Nitrogen, and 60 kg of Phosphorus. The land needs to be plowed at least twice. There are two ways of sowing the seeds, the seeds could be broadcasted or the unconventional method of drilling. 

The field needs to be irrigated before sowing. The field also needs 45 kg of N, 35 kg of P2O5 and 25 kg K2O. All the nutrients should be applied at least four days before sowing. 

Soil Type Requirements for Mustard

Mustard is a crop that can be grown in various types of soil. Mustard, however, grows best in loamy soil with good drainage to avoid water logging. Mustard also grows best in neutral pH soil to slightly alkaline soil that ranges from 6.0 to 7.5. 


Mustard is one of the oldest crops that is cultivated in the country. There are various ways of traditional cultivation that are still practised. Mustard is an easy crop to be grown. It is one of the best crops to cultivate for a beginning farmer. Mustard oil, has an added benefit to the ease of cultivation, is always in high demand. 


  1. What are the popular varieties of Mustard?
States   Varieties/Hybrid 
Uttar Pradesh  Pioneer 45S46, PT303, Bhawani, PT30, Pusa Kalyani, Varuna, K88, Shekhar, Vaibhav, Vardhan, Rohini 
Rajasthan  Albeli-1, PBR-357, RGN-298, RH-725, RH-761, GSC-7, Pusa mustard 25 (NPJ 112) 
Madhya Pradesh  Surabhi Black (Rise Agro), Raj Vijay Toria 1, RVM1, Jwala Tara (RTM-1355) 


  1. Which is the ideal season for Mustard cultivation?

Winter months (Oct – Jan) are best for mustard cultivation. 

  1.  What is the seed rate for mustard?

One acre of land requires 4 – 5 kg of seeds. 

  1. How much kg of fertilizer will be needed to apply for Mustard crop?

Mustard grows well in both rainfed and irrigated areas.  

The fertilizer recommendation dose for irrigated mustard is 24:16:16 kg/acre and rainfed mustard is 12:8:8 kg/acre. The commercial quantity for field application is listed in the table below:  

Nutrient  Fertilizer   Irrigated (per acre)  Rainfed (per acre) 
Organic  FYM  10 ton  10 ton 
N  Urea or  53 kg  26 kg 
Ammonium Sulphate  117 kg  58 kg 
P  Single Super Phosphate (SSP) or  101 kg  51 kg 
Double Super Phosphate (DSP)  51 kg  25 kg 
K  Muriate of Potash (MOP)  27 kg  14 kg 
Sulphate of Potash (SOP)  32 kg  16.2 kg 

(For Zn deficient soil)  

ANSHUL ZINC EDTA-FS (ZN 12%) micronutrient  Foliar application: 0.5 – 1 g/l  

Soil application:10 kg 

Foliar application: 0.5 – 1 g/l 

Soil application:10 kg 

B (For B deficient soil)  ALLBOR Boron 20%  Foliar spray: 1 g/l  Foliar spray: 1 g/l 



  1. How is the seed treatment done for mustard? 

Treat the seeds with Vitavax powder (Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% DS – 3 gm/kg) of seed prior to sowing. 

  1. What is the sowing method for mustard?

Mustard is usually sown by line sowing or broadcasting. Use of seed drill for sowing purpose is an alternative method. 

  1. What is the optimum sowing time for mustard?

It can be sown in Mid-October to end of October. 

  1. What is the difference between rapeseed and mustard?

The different ecotypes of Brassica campestris are yellow sarson, brown sarson and toria, collectively called rapeseed. Brassica juncea is a distinct species which is called Indian mustard or rai or raya. Oil content in rapeseed ranges from 40 – 46% and mustard ranges from 33 – 40%. Rapeseed seeds are small, light brown in colour with thin seed coat while mustard seeds are bold, round, reddish brown in colour with thick seed coat. 

  1. What is the pre-emergence herbicide used for mustard to control weeds?

Spray pre-emergence herbicide BACF PLOD (30% EC Pendimethalin) at 1000 ml/acre.  

Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.

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