Potato cultivation in India is there for 300 years. India in the fiscal year of 2021 the state of Uttar Pradesh alone produced about 16 million tons of potatoes. Potato export in the year 2019 – 2020 brought in 5 billion INR. Potatoes are a hardy crop that can grow in any region. Major potato-growing states in India are Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, West Bengal, Bihar and Assam. Due to their versatility, value-added potatoes are always in demand.
Selection of Seeds:
Potatoes are usually propagated using seed tubers. The popular varieties include Kufri Sindhuri, Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Lauvkar, Kufri Badshah, Kufri Bahar, Kufri Lalima, Kufri Jawahar, Kufri Sutlej, Kufri Ashoka, Kufri Pukhraj, Kufri Chipsona, and Kufri Anand. The exotic varieties of potatoes are Russet, Round White, Long White, Round Red, Yellow Flesh, Blue and Purple.
Potato Seed Treatment:
Seed treatment is done to prevent seed-borne diseases such as black scurf, black leg, fusarium rot and late blight. Treat the seed tubers as a whole or cut them into halves with captan @ 2g/litre. Potato seed treatment is often done within 6 hrs of cutting. Treating the seeds with humic acid or organic growth booster will provide the plant with the necessary nutrients for germination and growth propagation
Field Preparations for Potato:
Soil Type Requirements for potato:
Potatoes are grown in all types of soil except alkaline or saline soils. Soil that is naturally loose and promotes tuber growth and enlargement is ideally preferred. Loamy and sandy loam soil with rich organic matter and good drainage and aeration are best suited for cultivation.
Soil pH for Potato Production:
Potato grows best in slightly acidic soil. The soil with a pH range of 5.2 – 6.4 is considered to be optimal.
Land Preparations for Potatoes:
The land is ploughed with 20 – 25 cm and the tilled soil is exposed to the sun. Soil has to have high pore space which promotes better tuber growth and development. Add well-decomposed FYM 25 – 30 T/ha and mix it during the last ploughing. Furrows are created 50 – 60 cm before planting. The whole or cut tuber is then planted 15 – 20 cm apart on the centre of the ridge with a 5 – 7 cm depth and is covered with soil. The average seed rate is 1.5 – 1.8 t/ha for round varieties and 2 – 2.5 t/ha for oval varieties.
There is a four-row potato planter that ICAR has released into the market that is becoming very popular among potato farmers in recent times. This device requires 2- 3 people to operate and plant up to 4- 5 hectares per day, reducing the labour cost significantly.
Potato is a hardy crop that is grown almost everywhere. Potato is an ideal crop where when value is added even during times with low market rates, it always guarantees a good return on investment. Unlike other crops, potatoes can be cultivated anywhere at any time.
1. What are the popular varieties of potatoes in India?
|Karnataka||Kufri Sindhuri, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Lauvkar, Kufri Jawahar|
|Tamil Nadu||Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Malar, Kufri Muthu, Kufri Swarna, Kufri Thangam, Kufri soga, Kufri Giriraj|
|Telangana||Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Badshah, Kufri Pushraj, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Khyati, Kufri Surya|
|Andhra Pradesh||Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Himalani, Kufri Sindhuri, Kufri Lalima|
|Himachal Pradesh||Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Bahar, Kufri Pushraj|
|Uttar Pradesh||Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chipsona-2, Kufri Ashoka, Kufri Lalima|
- How is potato tuber treatment done?
- What is the seed rate of potato varieties in India?
The average seed rate is 0.6 – 0.7 t/acre for round varieties and 0.8 – 1 t/acre for oval varieties.
- What is the ideal soil type for potato cultivation?
Potatoes are grown in all types of soil except alkaline or saline soils. Loamy and sandy loam soil with rich organic matter and good drainage and aeration are best suited for cultivation.
- How to plant potato tuber?
Furrows are created 50 – 60 cm before planting. The whole or cut tuber is then planted 15 – 20 cm apart on the centre of the ridge with a 5 – 7 cm depth and is covered with soil. Four-row potato planter released by ICAR will be effective for this purpose which also reduces labour costs significantly.
(Tuber – It is a part of the plant that grows beneath the soil surface)
- What is the general dose of fertilizer recommendation for potatoes?
The general dose of fertilizer recommendation for potatoes is 49:24:49 kg/acre. The commercial quantity to be applied in the field (per acre) is mentioned in the table below.
|Nutrient||Fertilizers||General Dose (per acre)|
|Organic||FYM/compost.||10 –11 ton|
|N||Urea (or)||105 kg|
|Ammonium Sulphate||237 kg|
|P||Single Super Phosphate (SSP) (or)||152 kg|
|Double Super Phosphate (DSP)||76 kg|
|K||Muriate of Potash (MOP) (or)||81 kg|
|Sulphate of Potash||97 kg|
|Mg||Magnesium sulphate (Multiplex Multi MAG)||Foliar spray: 3 – 4 g/l|
|Biofertilizer||Azospirillium (Pioneer Agro) and Phosphobacteria (Pioneer Agro)||4 kg each|
Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.