HomeCropField Preparations for Cotton Crop

Field Preparations for Cotton Crop

India is one of the world’s largest cotton-producing country. India grows over 1.7 million hectares. India exports to over 159 countries. India export over 5.5 million bales of cotton. The annual national total demand for cotton for the year 2022 – 2023 is 351 lakhs bales. Cotton is majorly cultivated in Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Tripura. Gujarat is the highest producer of cotton in India.

Difficulty Level:


Selection of Seeds:

There are over 150 varieties of cotton available in India, some of the popular ones being RASI 773, RASI 776, ANKUR 555, BAYER 7172, BAYER 7272, US 51, NUZIVEEDU 9013, NUZIVEEDU BALWAN, SRIRAM 6588, KAVERI BULLET, GOLDI 333, Buri 1007, A.K.H. 081 and D.H.Y. 286. Rasi 773 produces big bolls of cotton with optimum height for the plant. This variety also has a high tolerance toward sucking pests.

Pre-soaking of Seeds:

Native cotton seed varieties need to be soaked for two to three hours minimum and imported varieties such as US varieties four to six hours.

Cotton Seed Treatment:

Before the cotton seeds treatment, the seeds are advised to be soaked in a mixture of water, mud, and cow dung for a uniform stand of plants.

  • Chemical Seed Treatment for Cotton:

Delinting is a necessary cotton seed treatment. To delint, take 1 kg of fuzzy seeds in a plastic bucket, and add H2SO4 concentrate at 100 ml/kg of seeds. Maintain a constant stirring with a wooden spoon for 2 – 3 minutes for uniform coverage and better treatment. The seeds will appear in a coffee brown color in about 3 minutes, immediately wash the seeds with cold water about 4 – 5 times. After washing all the seeds there is need to soak in water to remove any debris or floaters. Then wash the seed in 0.5% calcium chloride solution for 10 – 15 minutes for complete removal of acid in the seeds. The seeds that sink to the bottom can be used for sowing.

Delinted seeds in 2 grams of carbonized or 3 grams of mancozeb dissolved in 1 litre of water to help against seed-prone diseases. The slurry treatment is to soak the seeds in Captan at 2 grams per kg of delinted seed with 5 ml of water per kg of seed.

  • Bacterial Seed Treatment for Cotton:

Seed treatment for cotton has a variety of options to choose from. Azotobacter at 34 to 247 kg N/ha will help with nitrogen-fixing and inoculating seeds with other necessary bacterial strains. Like azotobacter, azospirillum is also micro aerophylic nitogen fixer. Azospirillum can reduce the nitrogen requirement by 25 – 30 %.

Field Preparations for Cotton:

  • Soil Type Requirements for Cotton:

Sandy loam

  • Soil pH:

Slightly acidic pH 5.5

Land Preparations for Cotton:

The field is harrowed twice in opposite directions and then disc-ploughed this loosens the soil. After the harrow, plough the land with chisel the soil with hard pan formation of 0.5m intervals.

Land preparation for cotton is prepared usually with sandy clayey loam soil mixed with 10 tons of FYM. Mix the seeds with 3 packets of Azospirillum (600 g/ha) and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophos(1200 g/ha). This way it’s sapling will have plenty of accessible nitrogen.


Cotton is a hardy crop that is grown throughout the country. Cotton is a major cash crop that has promised a healthy return for the year 2022 – 23. Cotton although it requires proper care, is not a high-maintenance crop, unlike other cash crops.


  1. Suggest some popular cotton varieties?
States  Varieties/Hybrids 
Karnataka  Amruth Cotton Grow (growth promoter for cotton), EZEE Cotton – herbal crop health enhancer, CCH 999 BG II hybrid cotton, Mahyco Dhandev + MRC 7373 BG-II Cotton 
Tamil Nadu  Amruth Cotton Grow (growth promoter for cotton), Multiplex BTC for Cotton, Mahyco Dhandev + MRC 7373 BG-II Cotton 
Andhra Pradesh  Amruth Cotton Grow (growth promoter), Mahyco Jungee Cotton, multiplex BTC Cotton micro nutrient, Navaneeth cotton (NCS929), EZEE Cotton- herbal crop health enhancer 
Telangana  US 7067 BG II (SWCH 4749 BG II) Cotton, CCH 999 BG II Hybrid Cotton, Mahyco Dhandev + MRC 7373 BG-II Cotton, Mahyco Jungee Cotton, Amruth Cotton Grow 
Maharashtra  Amruth Cotton Grow, US 7067 BG II (SWCH 4749 BG II) Cotton, Mahyco Dhandev + MRC 7373 BG-II Cotton, EZEE Cotton- herbal crop health enhancer, RCH 659 BG II Cotton 


  1. What is the ideal soil type for Cotton cultivation?

Sandy loam 

  1. How is the seed treatment for cotton is done?

Treat the acid delinted seeds with Carbendazim (Bavistin 50% WP) or thiram or Captan at 2g/kg of seeds. Sow the seeds after 24 hrs of treatment. An alternative method is to mix the delinted seeds with 10 ml of Azospirillium (SUN BIO AZOS) or  Phosphobacteria.(SUN BIO PHOSI) mixed with cold jaggery solution. Dry the treated seeds in shade before sowing and use it on the same day. 

(Note: Biofertilizer and fungicide are incompatible., therefore they should not be mixed together) 

  1. What is fertilizer recommendation for cotton? 

The general dose of fertilizer recommendation for rainfed cotton is 20:10:10 kg/acre and irrigated cotton is 40:20:20 kg/acre. The commercial quantity for field application is given in the table below: 

Nutrient  Fertilizer  Dosage for rainfed cotton (per acre)  Dosage for Irrigated cotton (per acre) 
Organic  FYM or compost 



5 ton 


1 ton 

5 ton 


1 ton 

N  Urea or   35 kg  69 kg 
Ammonium Sulphate  78 kg  156 kg 
P  DAP  22 kg  43 kg 
K  Muriate of Potash (MOP) or  17 kg  33 kg 
Sulphate of Potash (SOP)  20 kg  40 kg 

(For Zn deficient soil) 


ANSHUL ZINC EDTA-FS (ZN 12%) micronutrient



Foliar spray: 0.5 – 1gm/l 

Soil application: 10 kg 

Foliar spray: 0.5 – 1 gm/l 

Soil application: 10 kg 


(For Mg deficient soil) 

Multiplex Multi Mag (Magnesium Sulphate) 

Foliar spray: 3 – 4 g/l 

Soil application: 20 – 25 kg 

Foliar spray: 3 – 4 g/l 

Soil application: 20 – 25 kg 


  1. Suggest crops suitable for intercropping with cotton?

Short duration and quickly developing legumes such as black gram, green gram, soybean and cow pea, and vegetables (namely beet, onion, chilli) are suitable for cotton-based intercropping. 

  1. Which pre-emergence herbicide can be sprayed in cotton field to prevent weeds?

Apply BACF PLOD herbicide (Pendimethalin 30% EC) at 1000 ml/acre, 3 days after sowing using hand operated sprayer fitted with deflecting or fan type nozzle.

Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.



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