Brinjal, also known as eggplant, is a popular vegetable crop that is widely grown for its nutritional and culinary value. However, like any other crop, brinjal is susceptible to a variety of diseases that can affect its productivity and quality. Among these diseases, root-related diseases are a significant challenge for growers as they can cause stunted growth, wilting and even death of the plant. Management of these diseases is critical to ensuring a healthy and productive harvest.
Damping off in Brinjal
Damping off is a common disease especially during the early stages of growth. It can occur both before and after emergence of the seedlings. It can be caused by various soil-borne pathogens such as Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotium spp. The disease is favoured by conditions of high humidity and moisture, as well as poor soil drainage and high soil temperature.
- Seeds may fail to germinate or may germinate weakly.
- Seedlings may wilt and appear weak, even before they emerge from the soil.
- The collar region of the seedlings may appear water-soaked and slimy at the soil line. The seedlings may fall over and die.
- The roots of the seedling may become discolored and mushy and may eventually rot away.
Management of Damping off in Brinjal
- Select healthy seeds for sowing.
- Treat the seeds before sowing (as recommended below).
- Avoid over-watering and ensure that the soil is well-drained.
- Avoid raising the nursery continuously in the same plot.
|Product name||Technical content||Dosage|
|Spot Bio Fungicide||Pseudomonas fluorescens||Seed treatment: 10 gm/kg seed
Soil Application: 10 gm/lit water
|Multiplex Nisarga Bio Fungicide||Trichoderma viride||Soil Application: Mix 1- 2 kg of product + 100 kg of FYM and broadcast for 1 acre field|
|Ridomil Gold||Metalaxyl 4% + Mancozeb 64% WP||Nursery drenching: 3 gm/lit water|
|Ridomet 35 Fungicide||Metalaxyl 35% WS||Spray: 1.5 gm/lit of water|
Wilt in Brinjal
Wilt disease is a common problem in brinjal cultivation, caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. This disease typically affects brinjal plants around 30 to 45 days after planting. The bacteria or fungus enters the plant tissues and blocks the food and water conducting tissues, resulting in wilting of the plant and death.
The disease can appear at any stage of growth, from the seedling stage to maturity. But plants are most affected during pre-flowering and early fruiting stage. It is caused by the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum (formerly, Pseudomonas solanacearum) and can cause rapid wilting and death of the plant.
- The leaves may appear wilted during the day and may recover slightly at night. As the disease progresses, the wilting becomes permanent and the plant dies.
- The stem of the plant may develop brown discoloration, particularly near the soil line.
- Affected plants show slight yellowing of leaves.
- Drooping of lower leaves, followed by wilting.
- Wilting of the plant foliage usually starts from older branches and progresses to younger branches until the entire plant collapses.
- When the stem is cut open, you can see internal discoloration due to the bacteria colonizing the vascular tissue of the plant.
- One diagnostic symptom of bacterial wilt is the oozing of a white milky stream of bacteria when infected cut stem pieces are dipped in water.
Management of Bacterial Wilt in Brinjal
- Grow disease resistant seeds like IRIS Hybrid Brinjal Vinayak, MAHY green brinjal, Utsav brinjal.
- Avoid crop rotation with okra, tomato and potato. Instead, rotate the crop with non-host like cereals and crucifers such as cauliflower.
- Rogue out the infected plants and destroy them
- Add organic manures like FYM into the soil during flowering stage. This may help in reducing the population of the pathogen.
- As the disease is more commonly found in the presence of root knot nematode in the field, grow marigold as intercrop or in rotation to control it.
|Product name||Technical content||Dosage (Spraying)|
|V-Kure||Eugenol, Thymol, potassium salts, cationic surface agent, sodium salts & preservatives||2 gm/lit of water|
|Geolife Geomycin (Bio Bactericide)||Consortium Plant Extracts||0.5 gm/lit|
|Borogold Fungicide and Bactericide||Combination of Nano Silver Particles & Peroxy Acid Forming a synergistic complex||1.5 gm/lit of water|
|Blue Copper Fungicide||Copper oxychloride 50% WP||2 gm/lit of water|
|Conika Fungicide and Bactericide||Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP||1.5 gm/liter|
|Cristocycline Bactericide||Streptomycin sulphate 90% + Tetracycline hydrocloride 10% SP||0.2 gm/lit of water|
Fungal wilt disease viz., Verticillium and Fusarium wilt are caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melongenae.
- Wilting and yellowing of leaves starts from the lower leaves and progresses upwards.
- Irregularly scattered necrotic pale-yellow spots can be observed on the infected leaves, which eventually turn brown and merge to cause complete wilting of the leaves.
- The underground stems may turn dry and brown due to the decay of the cortex, and the roots may exhibit a soft and water-soaked appearance.
- When the roots and stems are cut diagonally, reddish-brown streaks may be seen in the vascular tissues.
- Drooping of the apical portion.
- Affected plant’s growth is severely stunted.
- The plant may produce fewer or no fruits.
Management of Fusarium and Verticillium Wilt in Brinjal
- Grow tolerant varieties like SV0776EG Brinjal.
- Avoid planting brinjal or other susceptible plants in the same field for at least three years. Follow crop rotation with non-host crops.
- Do not damage or create wounds to the roots while working in the field.
- Maintain field sanitation.
- Supply adequate nutrients to promote plant growth and disease resistance.
|Product name||Technical content||Dosage|
|Terra Fungikill Bio Fungicide||Herbal formulation||Seed treatment: 10 ml/kg of seeds
Soil Application: 2 ml/lit of water
|Nanobee 7 Star Bio fertilizer||Beneficial Lyophilized Microbes Consortia: 1.5 %||Mix 25-50 gm/lit of water and keep it in shade for 3-5 hr. Then mix it in 200 lit of water and drench in 1 acre field.|
|Anand Dr.Bactos Dermus||Trichoderma viride||Seed Treatment: 6 ml per kg of seeds.
Soil Application: 2 litter per Acer
|Benmain Fungicide||Carbendazim 50% DF||2 gm/lit water|
|Amistar Fungicide||Azoxystrobin 23%SC||0.5 – 1 ml/liter of water|
|Taqat Fungicide||Hexaconazole 5% + Captan 70% WP||Drenching: 2 gm/lit water|
|Roko Fungicide||Thiophanate Methyl 70% WP||Seed Treatment: 2 to 3 gm/kg of seeds
Spray: 0.5 gm/lit of water