Brown plant hopper is a serious pest of paddy in all rice growing regions of India. They are brown-coloured or yellowish-brown insects that cause the browning of the crops. They are found mainly on the base of paddy plants above the water level. They are two types: Brown back plant hopper and White backed plant hopper. They are harmful in all of their growth stages. But, they mainly infest the crop during the active growth stage of the plant i.e Tillering stage to flowering and grain formation stage. It frequently occurs in rainfed and irrigated wetland areas. The crop loss due to brown plant hopper ranges from 10 – 90% but if timely control measures are not taken up, there may be possibility of total crop loss within a very short period. They act as vector for rice grassy stunt and rice ragged stunt diseases.
Symptoms Of Brown Plant Hopper
- The common symptoms caused by the plant hoppers are dry plants or hopper burns or a scorched appearance on the leaves.
- Matured plants may also show circular patches of dryness.
- The infestation occurs in patches and hence called as “Hopper Burn”
- Sooty mould development at the base due to honeydew secretion confirms the presence of brown plant hopper
- The crops must be planted at a minimal distance of 30 cm to avoid the spread of the pests and maintain a rogue spacing at every 2.5-3 metres interval
- Maintain field sanitation by keeping the main fields and bunds free from weeds which harbours BPH population
- Avoid continuous cultivation of paddy crop in a year and use early maturing varieties to reduce BPH abundance and damage
- Irrigation must be done with wet and dry stages / Alternate wetting and drying of the field must be followed.
- Light traps at night and using a yellow pan during the daytime are also recommended.
- Use neem oil along with the insecticides.
- Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers
- Do not use Chloropyriphos, Phorate, Profenophos and Synthetic Pyrethroids like Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Bifenthrin, Lambda-cyhalothrin, Beta-cyfluthrin which increases the pest infestation.
- Do not apply any fertilizers after panicle emergence, if done it will increase pest infestation
- Use resistant varieties and do not use or limit the usage of pesticides in the initial crop stages
- Remove the weeds on the bunds and planting sesame, marigold, cowpea and lady’s finger on the bunds can reduce the infestation to some extent
- Using organic manures
- Adopt chemical method of control or spray chemicals only if there are more than 10-15 plant hoppers per plant at tillering stage and more than 20-55 plant hoppers per plant at panicle emergence stage. The sprayed chemical should fall or reach to the base of the plant which is the site of insect infestation.
Some effective chemicals to control Brown Plant Hopper in rice
- Token Insecticide is systemic in nature with quick knock down action. It contains Dinotefuron 20% SG. It offers excellent rainfastness with quick absorption. It should be applied mainly at the initial stage of pest incidence when there are around 10-15 hoppers per paddy hill. It should be applied at 0.3-0.4 gm/lit water or 60-80 gm/acres.
- Pexalon Insecticide has Triflumezopyrim 10% SC which acts immediately on the insects from feeding on the leaves. It is effective against hoppers with a single use at the right time. It provides long-term effects for up to 21 days. It is light on the environment and hard on pests. The dosage recommended is 94 ml per acre or 0.47 ml per litre. Provides better result when applied at 45-60 DAT if the pest incidence occurs.
- Katyayani BPH Super is a suitable insecticide against brown plant hoppers. It contains Pymetrozine 50% WG. It can be mixed in small quantities as needed and sprayed on the plants. The dosage should be 120 gm per mixed in 200 ml of water.
- Ulala Insecticide is one of the best solutions for harmful pests while keeping the beneficial insects safe. With Flonicamid 50% WG this foliar spray works through translaminar and systemic methods. Mix 60-80 gms of the product for an acre of land.
Other chemicals that can be used for management of Brown plant hopper in rice:
|S. No.||Technical name||Product name|
|1.||Pymetrozine 50 % WDG||CHESS INSECTICIDE, KATYAYANI BPH|
|2.||Thiamethoxam 25 % WG||ANANT INSECTICIDE, ACTARA INSECTICIDE|
|3.||Dinotefuran 20 % SG||OSHEEN INSECTICIDE, TOKEN INSECTICIDE|
|4.||Triflumezopyrim 10% SC||Pexalon Insecticide|
|5.||Acephate 500 + Imidacloprid 18 % SP||LANCER GOLD INSECTICIDE|
|6.||Imidacloprid||ADMIRE INSECTICIDE, CONFIDOR INSECTICIDE , TATAMIDA|
|7.||Flonicamid 50% WG||ULALA|
|8.||Acetamiprid 20% SP||MANIK INSECTICIDE|
|9.||Buprofezin 20% +Acephate 50% WP||ODIS INSECTICIDE|
|10.||Thiacloprid 21.7% SC||ALANTO INSECTICIDE|
|11.||Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG||POLICE INSECTICIDE|
|12||Monocrotophos 36% SL||UPL PHOSKILL INSECTICIDE, MONOSTAR INSECTICIDE|
|13||Neem oil||GREENPEACE NEEMOL, KATYAYANI ACTIVATED NEEM OIL, ECONEEM PLUS|
|Note:||Dose of the chemical varies from product to product. Please refer the product description on our website or label of the product before using.|
It is important to use an environmentally safe insecticide that works only on harmful insects. These insecticides mentioned here can work as a selective feeding blocker on certain pests while keeping the good ones away from their action. You must also have preventive measures taken for better pest management. The interval period must be identified properly and the products should be used accordingly. You must remember that excessive use of insecticides will not bring the same results but will instead increase the insect incidence which inturn increases the cost of cultivation.
Note: The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial or legal advice. Pesticides are a considerable risk of loss in crops and viewers are advised to do their own research before making any decisions.